Christian BARNES and Latham STULL ~ Canada

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The parents of my 4th great-grandfather Christian BARNES (1771-1868) died in 1778 during the American Revolution when he was about six or seven years old. Various family trees state his father George BARNES (c.1746-1778) was a Lieutenant in the British Army, but no source evidence has been found as yet. Family legend also has it that Christian was taken in by the neighbouring STULL family who were most likely living in Schoharie, New York at the time. Can researching the head of the family Lathum STULL lead to any further clues on George BARNES, or where his son Christian was living between 1778 and 1797 when he arrived in Ontario, Canada?

This is the information provided by my 2nd cousin 1x removed:

“Our Barnes family may have originated in England, according to one or two of the Canadian censuses, but in all instances, the family is listed as ethnically German so there are some discrepancies. At any rate, I have researched back to a George Barnes who fought on the British side in the American Revolutionary War and was killed by one of his own men in 1778. Shortly after, his wife is said to have died of grief, leaving a six-year-old son, Christian, who was subsequently raised by neighbours named Stull.”

In a further email she goes on to explain the origins of the middle name “Hutt” of John Hutt BARNES (1812-1901), my 3rd great-grandfather:

“The Hutt name comes from the Stulls who raised Christian Barnes.”

The name “Hutt” originates from Latham’s wife Ann Catharine HUTT, who was 20 years Latham’s junior (and only three years older than Christian). Several online trees have Ann’s parents as Johann/John Christopher HUTT and Anna Margaretha RITSCHER. However, there are no source records to confirm this and to make matter worse, Johann is stated to have died 10 months before the birth of their first son, and a full six years before the birth of Ann! A small selection of trees has Johann’s death in 1795 instead, and Ann’s mother’s death in either 1830 or 1836. Her parents were both born in Germany but met, married and died in or near Schoharie, New York.

Latham STULL, a United Empire Loyalist (UEL), was born February 15th 1749/50 (from headstone) in either Germany, New Jersey or Schoharie, New York according to various family trees. He fought with Butler’s Rangers during the American Revolution as a Private, who were based at Fort Niagara. In 1778 when George BARNES died, Latham would have been about 28 and yet to marry. I think it is very unlikely that he would have been able to take in an orphaned child at this time, so this part of the family legend has most likely been obscured over the generations. More likely, given the use of the name HUTT within the Barnes family, is that Christian was taken in by Ann’s parents.

When the war ended in 1784, many surviving loyalists went to Canada, but unsourced evidence suggests Latham remained in New York state and three years later married Ann Catharine HUTT on 23rd Jan 1787 in Schoharie. Latham was 37 and Ann was about 17, and less than four months later their first child was born. They had four children born in New York, and four more in Canada. The city of Schoharie is about 18 miles from Berne, and then another 23 miles to the city of Albany. The birth dates come from age at death on headstones and a transcript from a family bible.

  1. Jacob Stull – before May 1787 – Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA
  2. William Stull – 17 Sep 1789 – Berne, Albany, New York, USA
  3. Adam Stull – 6 Jun 1793 – Albany, New York, USA
  4. Hannah Stull – 4 Apr 1795 – Albany, Albany, New York, USA
  5. George Stull – 15 Dec 1797 – Niagara, Ontario, Canada
  6. Catherine Stull – 8 Oct 1799 – Niagara, Ontario, Canada
  7. John Stull – 14 Jun 1802 – Grantham, Niagara, Ontario, Canada
  8. Margaret Stull – 1804 – Niagara, Ontario, Canada

In 1790 “Latham STOLL” and family were living in Schoharie, Albany, New York. Within Latham’s household, there was himself (1 free white male over 16), sons Jacob and William (2 free white males under 16) and wife Ann (1 free white female). Christian Barnes would have been about 19 at this time. He’s clearly not living with the Stull family, but because he is not the head of his own household can not be found (if still in New York)

The family moved to Canada in either 1795 or 1796. On 21st Jun 1796, Latham applied for 300 acres of land in Niagara, on proof that his family was in the province and he had not been granted lands before. Christian also applied for land (1819), and the petition stated he arrived in Canada in 1797.

“The Petition of Latham Stull late of Butlers Rangers – Respectfully shews, That your petitioner is desirous to settle on the lands of the Crown in this Province, being in a condition to cultivate and improve the same. That he is ready to take the usual oaths, and to subscribe the declaration, that he professes the Christian Religion, and obedience to the laws, and has lived inoffensively in the country which he has left. Prays your Honour, would be pleased to grant him as a reduced Soldier 300 acres of land. And your petitioner as in duty bound will ever pray.” [Unsigned]

Added notes: “Petitioner also prays for a Lot in the Town of Newark. The Petitioner has a wife & four Children.”

Added note of Thomas Ridout, N. P.: “I do hereby certify that Latham Stull personally applied to me for the above petition.” [Signed] T Ridout N. P.

“Received at the Executive Council Office on 28 Sep 1796 and read the same day. Ordered prayer granted on consideration of his producing certificate of his family being in the province, if no land have been granted before.” Certificate of Peter Ball, J. P. dated at Newark (Niagara-on-the-Lake) on 27 Sep 1796 attached to the Upper Canada Land Petition of Latham Stull. 

“I do hereby Certify that Latham Stull has served as a Private soldier in Butlers Rangers during the late War” [Signed] P. Ball JP

LAC “S” Bundle 2, Petition Number 65b (microfilm C2806, page 719-721) 

A plaque to mark the first Anglican church in the district of Niagara was erected in 1937, of which Latham was one of the Church Wardens in 1799.

“At or near this spot in the year 1795, or earlier, William Read U.E.L. and a band of British subjects amidst the pine forest erected the first Anglican church in the district of Nassau (Niagara) in which divine service was held by the Rev. Robt. Addison”

“This God’s acre and church was deeded to Homer Episcopal congregation in the year 1799. Stephen Emmett, Latham Stull – Church Wardens”

“Erected by the Homer Burying Ground Com. Sept. 1937”

Latham bought several plots of land in Grantham Township in 1806. He also owned land on Lot 5 Concessions 9 and 10.

  • On 15 Dec 1806 (Reg 7 Jan 1817) Robert Hamilton, Trustee sold to Latham Stull:
    • part of Lot 6 Concession 8 Grantham Twp. with other lands 106 acres (5081)
    • part of Lot 7 Concession 8 Grantham Twp.
    • part of Lot 8 Concession 8 Grantham Twp.
    • part of Lot 6 Concession 9 Grantham Twp.
    • part of Lot 7 Concession 9 Grantham Twp.
    • part of Lot 8 Concession 9 Grantham Twp.
    • part of Lot 9 Concession 9 Grantham Twp.

The area of Grantham Township (previously Township Number 3) would become part of Nassau District in 1788 (which itself was renamed “Home District” in 1792). The district town was called Newark from 1792-97 (founded as “Butlersburg” in 1781, then changed to “West Niagara“), and the name changed yet again to Niagara-on-the-Lake from 1798.

The Stull family moved to Georgetown in Esquesing Township (in Halton County) sometime later (possibly 1819), where Latham died June 9th 1845 aged “95 years, 3 months and 24 days” according to his headstone. Christian also lived in Esquising Township (in Stewarttown), and was one of the earliest settlers. Ann died 10th Oct 1857 age 88

Found on RootsWeb:

United Empire Loyalists’ Association of Ontario, Annual Transactions (The Hunter, Rose Co., Ltd., 1897), page 103

Written by a great-grandchild of Lathum Stull:

“In conclusion, I may say I claim U.E.L. descent on my mother’s side also. Her paternal grandfather, Latham Stull, came from Schoharie, New York State, and settled in the Niagara district. He and four of his sons took active part in the war of 1812. Latham Stull at that time held the rank of Captain in the 2nd Regiment of the Lincoln Militia. Adam Stull, my mother’s father, was wounded at the battle of Niagara, and carried the ball in his leg until his death, forty-six years afterwards.”

Notes by Susan Violet Miller (nee Stull), a great-granddaughter of Lathum Stull:

“Latham Stull, born 16 Sep 1749, Germany – immigrated to England, then Virginia – fought in Butler’s Rangers – lived in Niagara district, then Esquising township, Halton county – died 1845.”

Found on United Empire Loyalists’ Association of Canada:

Latham Stull UE was born February 15, 1749/50 in Schoharie, Albany Co., New York Province. He died June 09, 1845 in Georgetown, Esquesing Township, Halton Co., Canada West.

“Latham enrolled and served as captain in the Third Lincoln Militia Regiment on June 4, 1811, despite being 61 years of age, and technically beyond the upper cut off date for mandatory militia service. Latham’s second Son, Adam “of Grantham” Stull served as a private in the Second Flank Company of the First Lincoln Regiment during the War of 1812. But there is no information for the eldest brother Jacob, nor the third son George, who most likely served, given their ages. Records are often incomplete.”

Latham Stull was a devoted Lutheran both in Schoharie New York and here. In 1795 a church, shared by various Protestant denominations, was built on Queenston Road, a little to the east of Ten Mile Creek on land owned by William Read. It was shared by Lutherans, Presbyterians and Anglicans (possibly Methodists, but the records are unclear about that). Latham was a member of the Lutheran congregation. However, as with many Lutherans in Niagara he was by necessity compelled to switch to Anglicanism when the shared non-denominational (but Protestant) church at the Upper Ten (Homer now eastern central St. Catharines), along with the shared non-denominational (but Protestant) church at St. Catharines 3 miles west were scooped up by the Anglicans (I say this with no bitterness, as I am an Anglican, but it was still scandalous). Annoyed but undeterred, Lutherans lobbied for the establishment of the first designated Lutheran parish in Niagara, commonly known today as “The Old German” Lutheran Church in Thorold. Ironically, the congregation was unable to convince a Lutheran clergyman to come and be their permanent pastor and eventually became Anglican as well. The church is St. John the Evangelist’s Church, Thorold.”

“William Read, who owned the land on which the non-denominational church and burying ground at the Upper Ten was located, in 1799 deeded it to the Church of England (Anglican) and it became the “Episcopal Congregation at the Upper Ten” thereby Many Lutherans found the Episcopal [Anglican] liturgy similar enough to their own that they stayed on. Latham Stull, for instance, who spent the first 5 decades of his life in Lutheran congregations, became a church warden in the new Episcopal Church that year. (Lincoln County 1856-1956, ed. R. Janet Powell published by The Lincoln County Council: Beamsville, Ont., 1956).”

“As an aside about The Upper Ten: The community was called The Upper Ten to distinguish it from the one along the Lake Ontario shoreline the mouth of the Creek, known as The Lower Ten (now Port Weller, St. Catharines). The Upper Ten spread along the Queenston Rd. for about a mile on either side of the Creek. With the arrival of a post office in 1859 it was classically renamed Homer. It has since been subsumed into the city of St. Catharines and exists only as the name of a bridge over the Welland Canal and as a cemetery, where the church once stood.”

— Submitted by John C. Haynes, UEL, Col. Butler Branch


BUTLER’S RANGERS (1777-1784)

Niagara Falls Museum

The Butler’s Rangers were a group of eight companies of men who fought for the Crown during the American Revolutionary War. The Rangers were formed by Lieutenant Colonel John Butler and were composed of Loyalists, mainly from the Mohawk Valley (in present day New York), who came to Canada fleeing the imprisonment and persecution inflicted by the American Rebels. The Butler’s Rangers were a courageous band of men who were seldom beaten, and it was widely acknowledged that for “steadiness, bravery, and allegiance they were not to be excelled.” Often they inflicted numerous casualties on their enemy while losing only a few men themselves, and were so skilled that the enemy scarcely knew of their presence until they were attacked.

John Butler was born in New London, Connecticut, in 1725. His father, Walter Butler, who was a Captain in the army, moved his family to the Mohawk Valley in 1742. In 1755, John Butler was nominated as Captain in the Indian Department, by Sir William Johnson, superintendent of the Northern Indians. As a result of his intimate knowledge of several Indian languages, Butler served as Sir Johnson’s interpreter and accompanied him on a number of campaigns during the French and Indian War (also known as the 7 Years War). Prior to the Revolutionary War, Butler had already distinguished himself in a number of military engagements.

With the increasing power of the Rebels in the United States, it became apparent that the support of the various Indian tribes would be essential to the Loyalist cause. It was the responsibility of the Northern Indian Department, now headed by Sir William Johnson’s son-in-law, Guy Johnson, to secure the support of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy. Unable to do so, Johnson, Colonel Daniel Claus (Sir Johnson’s other son-in-law), John Butler, and approximately 250 Loyalist and Indian supporters, including Joseph Brant, went to Canada in 1775.

In 1776, Johnson went to New York to serve under Sir William Howe, and Claus went to England. In their absences, John Butler was appointed Deputy Superintendent by Sir Guy Carleton, an appointment which led to bitter animosity between Butler and Claus. In his attempts to secure Indian support, Butler met with only mixed success. He had the support of the Mohawk and some Senecas and Cayugas, but the Iroquois remained neutral and refused to support the Loyalist side.

During the summer of 1777, Butler requested and was given permission to raise a battalion of rangers — eight companies, each consisting of one Captain, one Lieutenant, three Sergeants, three Corporals and fifty privates. Of these eight companies, two were to be composed of individuals knowing Indian languages and familiar with their customs and war practices; the remaining six would be people acquainted with the woods. By the middle of December, 1777, Butler had filled his first company of Rangers. On May 2nd, 1778, Butler’s Rangers and a number of Indians, began a march from Niagara to recruit men from the Mohawk Valley. They attracted many Loyalists, and the entire battalion was quickly filled. The Rangers wore uniforms of dark green cloth trimmed with scarlet. They had low flat caps with a brass plate in front bearing a G. R. encircled by the words “Butler’s Rangers.” The Rangers continued to play an important role throughout the American Revolution, carrying out a number of raids against the American Rebels, from Fort Niagara and Fort Detroit. Butler suggested that communities be developed for the Rangers and their families who were living around the Forts, and in the latter part of 1780, the first settlements were planned for the Rangers and other Loyalists who had been arriving in the area since the beginning of the Revolution.

When the Butler’s Rangers were disbanded in June, 1784, a majority of them (258 officers and their families) decided to remain in the area. Both the Butler’s Rangers and the Loyalists who had given up their land in the United States to remain loyal to Britain, were granted land in Canada by the Crown. John Butler was a prominent citizen in the settlement which developed in this area, and served as the Judge of the district until the formation of the Province of Upper Canada. He also continued in his post as deputy Superintendent of the Indian Department until his death in May, 1796, in Newark (present day Niagara-on-the-Lake). Although advanced in age, many of Butler’s Rangers lived to fight in the War of 1812, which they did with the same spirit which had distinguished them in the Revolutionary War.


Unfortunately, following Lathum Stull has not brought to light any further clues about Christian Barnes or his father George. The question still remains as to why the Hutt surname, rather than Stull, was continued in the Barnes family, and where Christian was living from 1778 to 1797.

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